The prostate cancer is the malignant tumour of the prostate gland of male reproductive organ, which may be life threatening when spread to other body parts, predominantly towards lymph nodes and bones. Prostate enlargement, also called Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), is a non-cancerous increase in size of the prostate. Symptoms may include frequent urination, trouble starting to urinate, weak stream, inability to urinate, or loss of bladder control. Complications can include urinary tract infections, bladder stones, and chronic kidney problems. According to a report published by Cancer Research, UK, an estimated 14 million cases of cancer reported worldwide and nearly half-8.2 million people (about 13 per cent of the total worldwide deaths) died from cancer. The cases of cancer is expected to increase to 24 million by 2035, therefore, the death toll from cancer is expected to increase in the future. Many studies have shown that the major factor contributing in prostate cancer is the age, because men who have the prostate cancer are between 65 and 80 years, and it is rare in men who are under than 40 years. Pawpaw Black Seeds United States (US) researchers have demonstrated that pawpaw (papaya) black seeds have beneficial anti-cancer effects on PC -3 prostate cancer cells The study was published in Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment. The researchers from Virginia State University, Petersburg, investigated the effect of papaya seeds on prostate cancer (PC) using PC-3 cell line because papaya seeds have effects on the male reproductive system, notably decreasing sperm concentration, motility, and viability, leading to azoospermia (complete lack of sperm in the ejaculate) after short-to-long-term treatment. The black seeds from yellow (ripe) papaya and white seeds from green (unripe) papaya were harvested and then extracted in water, 80 per cent methanol, and hexane. The cytotoxic effects of seeds extracts were determined using a WS T -1 proliferation assay. The amount of total polyphenols was determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent. The results indicate that the methanol extracts from black seeds significantly decreased cell proliferation of PC-3 cells whereas hexane- and water-extracts have no effect. The researcher noted: "However, the water-extract from white seeds stimulated PC cell proliferation. The black seeds contained significantly more polyphenols than that of white seeds. The data suggest that black seeds from papaya have anti-cancer effects on PCs whereas white seeds stimulated prostate cancer proliferation. The anti-cancer effect of black seeds may be because of their high concentration of polyphenols. They concluded: "The black seeds from papaya may have a potential to reduce growth of prostate cells; however, consumption of white seeds should be avoided as they may stimulate pre-existing prostate cancer. Bitter Leaf A recent study published in the Journal Molecules, September 2017, validated the therapeutic mechanisms of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) in the treatment of prostate cancer. The researchers assessed the anti-cancer activities of Vernonia Amygdalina Delile (VAD) methanolic extracts in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer using human androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells as a test model. To achieve our objective, PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of VAD for 48 hours. The researchers noted: "Data generated from the trypan blue test and MTT assay demonstrated that VAD extracts exhibited significant growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells. Collectively, we established for the first time the antiproliferative effects of VAD on PC-3 cells, with an IC50 value of about 196.6 ug/mL. "Further experiments, including cell morphology, lipid peroxidation and comet assays, and apoptosis analysis showed that VAD caused growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells through the induction of cell growth arrest, Deoxy ribonucleic Acid (DNA) damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in vitro and may provide protection from oxidative stress diseases as a result of its high antioxidant content. "These results provide useful data on the anticancer activities of VAD for prostate cancer and demonstrate the novel possibilities of this medicinal plant for developing prostate cancer therapies. Also, a Nigerian-born professor of Biology, Ernest Izevbigie, has patented a formula made from bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina). This bitter leaf-based formula is a proven anti-diabetic and anti-cancer formula in laboratory and clinical trials. This formula product can also benefit Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. It has been patented: U.S. Patent 6,713,098 in 2004 and the second 6,848,604 in 2005.